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A compound is a substance formed by combining more than one element in a fixed proportion by mass. The properties of individual elements are lost in the compound. A compound can be converted into a different substance by interacting with other substances via a chemical reaction. Chemical formulas are used to represent them.

Chemical Formula

A chemical formula is the symbolic display of the ratio of atoms, forming a distinct chemical compound. It is used to represent chemical compounds. For example, the chemical formula of carbon dioxide is CO2. It signifies that one carbon atom combines with two oxygen atoms to form one carbon dioxide molecule. Students can also read the chemical formula questions to understand the topic in-depth.

Chemical Formula of Some Common Compounds

S. No.Chemical CompoundsChemical Formula
1.Nitric acidHNO3
2.Sodium chlorideNaCl
3.Potassium hydroxideKOH
4.Sulphuric acidH2SO4
5.Nitrous oxideN2O
6.Sodium carbonateNa2CO3
7.Hydrogen peroxideH2O2
8.Potassium cyanideKCN
9.Sodium iodideNaI
10.Sodium acetateCH3COONa

Types of Chemical Formulas

Chemical formulas explain the atoms that combine to form a compound and the proportions in which the atoms combine to form the compound. We can typically classify into four classes.

Molecular Chemical Formulas

The molecular chemical formula of a compound is a spartan presentation of the total number of atoms in the compound. It is fixed for compounds. For example, the molecular formula of sodium chloride is NaCl, signifying that one sodium atom combines with one chloride atom to form a molecule of sodium chloride. It is the same as the empirical formula if only one atom of a particular type exists. It helps in determining the class of a compound.

Empirical Chemical Formulas

The empirical chemical formula of a compound is a spartan presentation of the proximate number of atoms in the compound. It is standard for compounds. For example, the molecular formula of hexane is C6H14, illustrating that six carbon atoms combine with 14 hydrogen atoms to form one molecule of glucose. However, its empirical formula will be C3H7.

Structural Chemical Formulas

The structural chemical formula of a compound is the quantitative presentation of the molecule. It demonstrates the arrangement of atoms and the chemical bond between atoms and gives a detailed insight into the structure of the compound. A compound may have one molecular formula but different structural formulas. For example, glucose and fructose have the same molecular formula of C₆H₁₂O₆ but different structural formulas. The structural formula of glucose and fructose is given below.

Condensed Chemical Formulas

A compound’s condensed chemical formula is the compound’s style and spatial arrangement of bonds. For example, propane comprises three carbon atoms bonded to eight hydrogen atoms. Its condensed chemical formula can be written as CH3CH2CH3.

Chemical Reaction

A chemical reaction is an operation in which more than one chemical compound reacts to form one or more products. It is characterised by gas evolution, temperature change, precipitate formation and state change. To learn more about chemical reactions, read the chemical reactions questions. It will enable you to review the topic and clear all your doubts.

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